Nobel Prizes in Chemistry

 

© Dr. John Andraos

Department of Chemistry, York University
4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ONTARIO M3J 1P3, CANADA

For suggestions, corrections, additional information, and comments please send e-mails to jandraos@yorku.ca

http://www.chem.yorku.ca/NAMED/

 

NOBEL PRIZE CHEMISTRY

YEAR

NAMES OF SCIENTISTS

NATIONALITY

TYPE OF CHEMISTRY

1901

Jacobus van't Hoff

Dutch

physical

1902

Emil Fischer

German

organic

1903

Svante Arrhenius

Swedish

physical

1904

Sir William Ramsay

British

physical

1905

Adolf von Baeyer

German

organic

1906

Henri Moissan

French

inorganic

1907

Eduard Buchner

German

organic/bioorganic

1908

Lord Ernest Rutherford

British

nuclear

1909

Wilhelm Ostwald

Latvian

physical

1910

Otto Wallach

German

organic

1911

Marie Curie

Polish-French

nuclear

1912

Victor Grignard

French

organic

1912

Paul Sabatier

French

organic

1913

Alfred Werner

German

inorganic

1914

Theodore Williams Richards

American

physical

1915

Richard Martin Willstatter

German

organic

1916

no prize awarded

1917

no prize awarded

1918

Fritz Haber

German

physical/industrial

1919

no prize awarded

1920

Walther Hermann Nernst

German

physical

1921

Frederick Soddy

British

nuclear

1922

Francis William Aston

British

analytical

1923

Fritz Pregl

Slovenian

analytical

1924

no prize awarded

1925

Richard Zsigmondy

Austrian

physical

1926

Theodor Svedberg

Swedish

physical

1927

Heinrich Wieland

German

organic

1928

Adolf Windaus

German

organic

1929

Hans von Euler-Chelpin

German

bioorganic

1929

Arthur Harden

British

bioorganic

1930

Hans Fischer

German

bioorganic

1931

Friedrich Bergius

German

physical

1931

Carl Bosch

German

physical

1932

Irving Langmuir

American

physical

1933

no prize awarded

1934

Harold Urey

American

nuclear

1935

Frederic Joliot

French

nuclear

1935

Irene Joliot-Curie

French

nuclear

1936

Peter Debye

Dutch

physical

1937

Sir Walter Haworth

British

organic

1937

Paul Karrer

Russian

organic

1938

Richard Kuhn

Austrian

organic

1939

Adolf Butenandt

German

organic

1939

Leopold Ruzicka

Croatian

organic

1940

no prize awarded

1941

no prize awarded

1942

no prize awarded

1943

George de Hevesy

Hungarian

nuclear

1944

Otto Hahn

German

nuclear

1945

Arturri Virtanen

Finnish

agrichemistry

1946

James Sumner

American

bioorganic

1946

John Northrup

American

bioorganic

1946

Wendell Stanley

American

bioorganic

1947

Sir Robert Robinson

British

organic

1948

Arne Tiselius

Swedish

bioorganic

1949

William Francis Giauque

Canadian-American

physical

1950

Kurt Alder

German

organic

1950

Otto Paul Hermann Diels

German

organic

1951

Edwin McMillan

American

nuclear

1951

Glenn T. Seaborg

American

nuclear

1952

Archer John Porter Martin

British

analytical

1952

Richard Laurence Millington Synge

British

analytical

1953

Hermann Staudinger

German

organic

1954

Linus Carl Pauling

American

organic

1955

Vincent Du Vigneaud

American

organic

1956

Sir Cyril Hinshelwood

British

physical

1956

Nikolay Nikolayevich Semenov

Russian

physical

1957

Alexander Robertus Todd

Scottish

bioorganic

1958

Frederick Sanger

British

bioorganic

1959

Jaroslav Heyrovksy

Czech

analytical

1960

Willard Libby

American

nuclear

1961

Melvin Calvin

American

bioorganic

1962

John Kendrew

British

bioorganic

1962

Max Perutz

Austrian-British

bioorganic

1963

Giulio Natta

Italian

polymer

1963

Karl Ziegler

German

polymer

1964

Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin

British

physical-bioorganic

1965

Robert Woodward

American

organic

1966

Robert Mulliken

American

physical

1967

Ronald Wreyford Norrish

British

physical-organic

1967

Sir George Porter

British

physical-organic

1967

Manfred Eigen

German

physical

1968

Lars Onsager

Norwegian

physical

1969

Sir Derek Harold Richard Barton

British

organic

1969

Odd Hassel

Norwegian

organic

1970

Luis Leloir

French

bioorganic

1971

Gerhard Herzberg

German-Canadian

physical

1972

Christian Anfinsen

Norwegian

bioorganic

1972

Stanford Moore

American

bioorganic

1972

William Stein

American

bioorganic

1973

Ernst Otto Fischer

German

inorganic

1973

Sir Geoffrey Wilkinson

British

inorganic

1974

Paul Flory

American

polymer

1975

Sir John Cornforth

Australian

organic

1975

Vladimir Prelog

Croatian

organic

1976

William N. Lipscomb, Jr.

American

organic

1977

Ilya Prigogine

Russian-French

physical

1978

Peter Mitchell

British

bioorganic

1979

Herbert Charles Brown

American

organic

1979

Georg Wittig

German

organic

1980

Paul Berg

American

bioorganic

1980

Walter Gilbert

American

bioorganic

1980

Frederick Sanger

British

bioorganic

1981

Kenichi Fukui

Japanese

theoretical

1981

Roald Hoffmann

Polish-American

organic

1982

Aaron Klug

South African-British

bioorganic

1983

Henry Taube

Canadian-American

inorganic

1984

Robert Bruce Merrifield

American

bioorganic

1985

Herbert Aaron Hauptman

American

mathematical biology

1985

Jerome Karle

American

physical

1986

Dudley R. Herschbach

American

physical

1986

Yuan Tseh Lee

Taiwanese-American

physical

1986

John Charles Polanyi

British-Canadian

physical

1987

Donald James Cram

American

organic

1987

Jean-Marie Lehn

French

organic

1987

Charles J. Pedersen

Korean-American

organic

1988

Hartmut Michel

German

bioorganic

1988

Johann Deisenhofer

German

bioorganic

1988

Robert Huber

German

bioorganic

1989

Sidney Altman

Canadian-American

bioorganic

1989

Thomas R. Cech

American

bioorganic

1990

Elias James Corey

American

organic

1991

Richard R. Ernst

Swiss

physical

1992

Rudolph A. Marcus

Canadian-American

physical

1993

Kary B. Mullis

American

bioorganic

1993

Michael Smith

British-Canadian

bioorganic

1994

George A. Olah

Hungarian-American

organic

1995

Paul Crutzen

Dutch

atmospheric

1995

Mario Molina

Mexican-American

atmospheric

1995

F. Sherwood Rowland

American

atmospheric

1996

Robert F. Curl, Jr.

American

organic

1996

Sir Harold W. Kroto

British

organic

1996

Richard E. Smalley

American

organic

1997

Paul D. Boyer

American

bioorganic

1997

John E. Walker

British

bioorganic

1997

Jens C. Skou

Danish

bioorganic

1998

Walter Kohn

Austrian-American

theoretical

1998

John A. Pople

British-American

theoretical

1999

Ahmed Zewail

Egyptian-American

physical

2000

Alan J. Heeger

American

polymer

2000

Alan G. MacDiarmid

New Zealander-American

polymer

2000

Hideki Shirakawa

Japanese

polymer

2001

Karl Barry Sharpless

American

organic

2001

William Standish Knowles

American

organic

2001

Ryoji Noyori

Japanese

organic

 

 

 

 

NUMBER OF PRIZES AWARDED BY TYPE OF CHEMISTRY

AREA OF CHEMISTRY

NUMBER OF PRIZES

agrichemistry

1

analytical

5

atmospheric

3

bioorganic

34

industrial

1

inorganic

5

nuclear

11

organic

46

physical

31

physical-organic

2

polymer

6

theoretical

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PRIZE YEAR

NOBEL CHEMISTS

SUPERVISOR

Ph.D.

UNIVERSITY

DATES

Age (years)

Age at Prize

1950

Alder, Kurt

Otto Diels

1926

Kiel

1902 - 1958

56

48

1989

Altman, Sidney

Leonard S. Lerman

1967

Colorado

1939 -

50

1972

Anfinsen, Christian

1943

Harvard Medical School

1916 - 1995

79

56

1903

Arrhenius, Svante

E. Edlund, Sven O. Pettersson

1884

Uppsala

1859 - 1927

68

44

1922

Aston, Francis William

P.F. Frankland, J.H. Poynting

1898-1900,

1903-8

(no Ph.D.)

Birmingham

1877 - 1945

68

45

1905

Baeyer, Adolf von

Robert Bunsen, F. Kekule

1858

Berlin

1835 - 1917

82

70

1969

Barton, Sir Derek Harold Richard

Ewart R.H. Jones, Ian Heilbron

1942

London

1918 - 1998

80

51

1980

Berg, Paul

1952

Case Western Reserve

1926 -

54

1931

Bergius, Friedrich

Arthur Hanzsch

1907

Leipzig

1884 - 1949

65

47

1931

Bosch, Carl

Johannes Wislicenus

1898

Leipzig

1874 - 1940

66

57

1997

Boyer, Paul D.

Paul Phillips

1943

Wisconsin

1918 -

79

1979

Brown, Herbert Charles

H.I. Schlesinger

1938

Chicago

1912 -

67

1907

Buchner, Eduard

Adolf Baeyer

1888

Munich

1860 - 1917

57

47

1939

Butenandt, Adolf

Adolf Windaus

1927

Gottingen

1903 -

36

1961

Calvin, Melvin

George A. Glockler

1935

Minnesota

1911 - 1997

86

50

1989

Cech, Thomas R.

John Herst

1975

UC Berkeley

1947 -

42

1990

Corey, Elias James

John C. Sheehan

1951

MIT

1928 -

62

1975

Cornforth, Sir John

Sir Robert Robinson

1941

Oxford

1917 -

58

1987

Cram, Donald James

Louis F. Fieser

1947

Harvard

1919 - 2001

82

68

1995

Crutzen, Paul Josef

1968

Stockholm

1933 -

62

1911

Curie, Marie

Henri Becquerel

1902

Sorbonne

1867 - 1934

67

44

1996

Curl, Jr., Robert Floyd

Kenneth Pitzer

1957

UC Berkeley

1933 -

63

1936

Debye, Peter

Arnold Sommerfeld

1908

Munich

1884 - 1966

82

52

1988

Deisenhofer, Johann

Robert Huber

1974

TU Berlin, Max Planck Inst. Biochem.

1943 -

45

1950

Diels, Otto Paul Hermann

Emil Fischer

1899

Berlin

1876 - 1954

78

74

1967

Eigen, Manfred

Arnold Eucken

1951

Georg-August U, Gottingen

1927 -

40

1991

Ernst, Richard R.

Hans Primas

1962

ETH

1933 -

58

1929

Euler-Chelpin, Hans von

1895

Berlin

1873 - 1964

91

56

1902

Fischer, Emil

Adolf Baeyer

1874

Strasbourg

1852 - 1919

67

50

1973

Fischer, Ernst Otto

Walter Hieber

1952

TH Munich

1918 -

55

1930

Fischer, Hans

Theodore Zincke

1904

Marburg

1881 - 1945

64

49

1974

Flory, Paul

Herrick Lee Johnston

1934

Ohio State

1910 - 1985

75

64

1981

Fukui, Kenichi

1948

Kyoto (eng.)

1918 - 1998

80

63

1949

Giauque, William Francis

George Ernest Gibson

1922

California

1895 - 1982

87

54

1980

Gilbert, Walter

Abdus Salam

1957

Cambridge

1932 -

48

1912

Grignard, Victor

Louis Bouvealt, Phillipe Barbier

1901

Lyon

1871 - 1935

64

41

1918

Haber, Fritz

Carl Liebermann

1891

Berlin-Charlottenberg

1868 - 1934

66

50

1944

Hahn, Otto

Theodore Zincke

1901

Marburg

1879 - 1968

89

65

1929

Harden, Arthur

Otto Fischer

1888

Erlangen

1865 - 1940

75

64

1969

Hassel, Odd

1924

Berlin

1897 - 1981

84

72

1985

Hauptman, Herbert Aaron

Jerome Karle

1955

Maryland (mathematics)

1917 -

68

1937

Haworth, Sir Walter

Otto Wallach

1910

Gottingen

1883 - 1950

67

54

2000

Heeger, Alan J.

1961

UC Berkeley

1936 -

64

1986

Herschbach, Dudley R.

Edgar Bright Wilson, Jr.

1958

Harvard

1932 -

54

1971

Herzberg, Gerhard

Hans Rau

1928

TU Darmstadt (eng. physics)

1904 - 1999

95

67

1943

Hevesy, George de

Georg Meyer

1908

Freiburg

1885 - 1966

81

58

1959

Heyrovksy, Jaroslav

J.S. Sterba-Bohm

1918

Charles U, Prague

1890 - 1967

77

69

1956

Hinshelwood, Sir Cyril

Harold Brewer Hartley

1920

Oxford (MA)

1897 - 1967

70

59

1964

Hodgkin, Dorothy Crowfoot

John D. Bernal

1937

Cambridge

1910 -

54

1981

Hoffmann, Roald

M. Gouterman, W.N. Lipscomb, Jr.

1962

Harvard

1937 -

44

1988

Huber, Robert

Walter Hoppe, P. Karlson

1963

TU Munich

1937 -

51

1935

Joliot, Frederic

Marie Curie, Paul Langevin

1920's

Radium Institute

1900 - 1958

58

35

1935

Joliot-Curie, Irene

Marie Curie

1920's

Radium Institute

1897 - 1956

59

38

1985

Karle, Jerome

Lawrence O. Brockway

1943

Michigan

1918 -

67

1937

Karrer, Paul

Alfred Werner

1911

Zurich

1889 - 1971

82

48

1962

Kendrew, John

W.H. Taylor

1949

Cambridge

1917 -

45

1982

Klug, Aaron

Douglas Rayner Hartree

1952

Cambridge

1926 -

56

2001

Knowles, William Standish

R.C. Elderfield

1942

Columbia

1917 -

84

1998

Kohn, Walter

Julian Schwinger

1948

Harvard

1923 -

75

1996

Kroto, Sir Harold Walter

Richard Dixon

1964

Sheffield

1939 -

57

1938

Kuhn, Richard

Richard Willstatter

1922

Munich

1900 - 1967

67

38

1932

Langmuir, Irving

Walther Nernst

1906

Gottingen

1881 - 1957

76

51

1986

Lee, Yuan Tseh

Bruce Mahan

1965

UC Berkeley

1936 -

50

1987

Lehn, Jean-Marie

Guy Ourisson

1963

Strasbourg

1939 -

48

1970

Leloir, Luis

1932

Buenos Aires (MD)

1906 - 1987

81

64

1960

Libby, Willard

G.N. Lewis, Wendell Latimer

1933

UC Berkeley

1908 - 1980

72

52

1976

Lipscomb, Jr., William N.

Linus Pauling

1946

Cal Tech

1919 -

57

2000

MacDiarmid, Alan G.

1955

Wisconsin(1953),Cambridge(1955)

1927 -

73

1992

Marcus, Rudolph A.

C.A. Winkler

1946

McGill

1923 -

69

1952

Martin, Archer John Porter

Sir Charles Martin

1936

Cambridge

1910 -

42

1951

McMillan, Edwin

E.U. Condon

1932

Princeton

1907 - 1991

84

44

1984

Merrifield, Robert Bruce

Max Dunn

1949

UCLA

1921 -

63

1988

Michel, Hartmut

Dieter Oesterhelt

1977

Wurzburg

1948 -

40

1978

Mitchell, Peter

James F. Danielli

1951

Cambridge

1920 - 1992

72

58

1906

Moissan, Henri

Edmond Fremy

1880

Paris

1852 - 1907

55

54

1995

Molina, Mario Jose

George C. Pimentel

1972

UC Berkeley

1943 -

52

1972

Moore, Stanford

Karl Paul Link

1938

Wisconsin

1913 - 1982

69

59

1966

Mulliken, Robert

William D. Harkins

1922

Chicago

1896 - 1986

90

70

1993

Mullis, Kary Banks

Joe Nielands

1973

UC Berkeley

1944 -

49

1963

Natta, Giulio

1924

Milan Poly.Inst. (chem. eng.)

1903 - 1979

76

60

1920

Nernst, Walther Hermann

Friedrich Kohlrausch

1887

Wurzburg

1864 - 1941

77

56

1967

Norrish, Ronald Wreyford

Sir Eric Keightley Rideal

1924

Cambridge

1897 - 1978

81

70

1946

Northrup, John

John M. Nelson

1915

Columbia

1891 - 1987

96

55

2001

Noyori, Ryoji

Hitosi Nozaki

1967

Kyoto

1938 -

63

1994

Olah, George A.

Geza Zemplen

1949

Tech.U. Budapest

1927 -

67

1968

Onsager, Lars

Peter Debye

1928

Norges TH

1903 - 1976

73

65

1909

Ostwald, Wilhelm

Carl Schmidt, Johann Lemberg

1877

Dorpat

1853 - 1932

79

56

1954

Pauling, Linus Carl

Roscoe G. Dickinson

1925

Cal Tech

1901 - 1994

93

53

1987

Pedersen, Charles J.

Jack F. Norris

1927

MIT (M.Sc.)

1904 - 1989

85

83

1962

Perutz, Max

John Desmond Bernal

1940

Cambridge

1914 -

48

1986

Polanyi, John Charles

Ernest Warhurst

1952

Manchester

1929 -

57

1998

Pople, John Anthony

Sir John Lennard-Jones

1951

Cambridge (mathematics)

1925 -

73

1967

Porter, Sir George

Ronald G.W. Norrish

1948

Cambridge (no Ph.D.)

1920 -

47

1923

Pregl, Fritz

1894

Graz (MD)

1869 - 1930

61

54

1975

Prelog, Vladimir

Emil Votocek

1929

Prague

1906 - 1998

92

69

1977

Prigogine, Ilya

Theophile de Donder

1941

U Libre de Bruxelles

1917 -

60

1904

Ramsay, Sir William

Rudolf Fittig

1873

Tubingen

1852 - 1916

64

52

1914

Richards, Theodore Williams

Josiah Cooke

1888

Harvard

1868 - 1928

60

46

1947

Robinson, Sir Robert

William H. Perkin, Jr.

1909

Manchester

1885 - 1975

90

62

1995

Rowland, Frank Sherwood

Willard F. Libby

1952

Chicago

1927 -

68

1908

Rutherford, Lord Ernest

J.J. Thomson

1897

Cambridge

1871 - 1937

66

37

1939

Ruzicka, Leopold

Hermann Staudinger

1910

TU Karlsruhe

1887 - 1967

80

52

1912

Sabatier, Paul

Marcellin Berthelot

1880

College de France

1854 - 1941

87

58

1958

Sanger, Frederick

A. Neuberger

1943

Cambridge

1918 -

40

1980

Sanger, Frederick

A. Neuberger

1943

Cambridge

1918 -

62

1951

Seaborg, Glenn T.

Gilbert N. Lewis, E.O. Lawrence

1937

UC Berkeley

1912 - 1999

87

39

1956

Semenov, Nikolay Nikolayevich

1917

Petrograd (St. Petersburg)

1896 - 1986

90

60

2001

Sharpless, Karl Barry

Eugene E. van Tamelen

1968

Stanford

1941 -

60

2000

Shirakawa, Hideki

1966

Tokyo Institute of Technology

1936 -

64

1997

Skou, Jens Christian

1954

Aarhus (Dr. MD)

1918 -

79

1996

Smalley, Richard Errett

Elliot R. Bernstein

1973

Princeton

1943 -

53

1993

Smith, Michael

H.B. Henbest

1956

Manchester

1932 - 2000

68

61

1921

Soddy, Frederick

Ernest Rutherford (post-doc)

1898

Oxford (BA)

1877 - 1956

79

44

1946

Stanley, Wendell

Roger Adams

1929

Illinois

1904 - 1971

67

42

1953

Staudinger, Hermann

Daniel Vorlaender

1903

Halle

1881 - 1965

84

72

1972

Stein, William

E.G. Miller

1937

Columbia

1911 - 1980

69

61

1946

Sumner, James

Otto Folin

1914

Harvard Medical School

1887 - 1955

68

59

1926

Svedberg, Theodor

no supervisor

1907

Uppsala

1884 - 1971

87

42

1952

Synge, Richard Laurence Millington

N.W. Pirie

1941

Cambridge

1914 -

38

1983

Taube, Henry

William C. Bray

1940

UC Berkeley

1915 -

68

1948

Tiselius, Arne

Theodor Svedberg

1930

Uppsala

1902 - 1971

69

46

1957

Todd, Lord Alexander Robertus

Walther Borsche

1931

Frankfurt

1907 - 1997

90

50

1934

Urey, Harold

Gilbert N. Lewis

1923

UC Berkeley

1893 - 1981

88

41

1901

van't Hoff, Jacobus

E. Mulder

1874

Utrecht

1852 - 1911

59

49

1955

Vigneaud, Vincent Du

John R. Murlin

1927

Rochester

1901 - 1978

77

54

1945

Virtanen, Arturri

O. Aschan

1919

Helsinki

1895 - 1973

78

50

1997

Walker, John E.

E.P. Abraham

1969

Oxford

1941 -

56

1910

Wallach, Otto

Friedrich Wohler

1869

Gottingen

1847 - 1931

84

63

1913

Werner, Alfred

Arthur Hantzsch

1890

ETH

1866 - 1919

53

47

1927

Wieland, Heinrich

Johannes Thiele

1901

Munich

1877 - 1957

80

50

1973

Wilkinson, Sir Geoffrey

Henry Vincent Aird Briscoe

1941

Imperial College, U London

1921 - 1996

75

52

1915

Willstatter, Richard Martin

Alfred Einhorn

1894

Munich

1872 - 1942

70

43

1928

Windaus, Adolf

Heinrich Kiliani

1899

Freiburg

1876 - 1959

83

52

1979

Wittig, Georg

Karl von Auwers

1923

Marburg

1897 - 1987

90

82

1965

Woodward, Robert

James F. Norris

1937

MIT

1917 - 1979

62

48

1999

Zewail, Ahmed

Robin Main Hochstrasser

1974

U Pennsylvania

1946 -

53

1963

Ziegler, Karl

Karl von Auwers

1920

Marburg

1898 - 1973

75

65

1925

Zsigmondy, Richard

Wilhelm von Miller

1889

Erlangen

1865 - 1929

64

60

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOP 5 UNIVERSITY RANKING

Number of Laureates

University

Country

14

Cambridge

U.K.

10

UC Berkeley

U.S.

5

Harvard

U.S.

5

Munich

Germany

4

Berlin

Germany

4

Gottingen

Germany

4

Marburg

Germany

3

MIT

U.S.

3

Uppsala

Sweden

 

Nationality Demographics

Nationality

Number

American

49

American born

36

German

27

British

26

British born

24

French

9

Canadian

7

Canadian born

4

French

6

Austrian

4

Dutch

3

Norwegian

3

Russian

3

Swedish

3

Croatian

2

Hungarian

2

Polish

2

Japanese

3

Italian

1

Finnish

1

Danish

1

Czech

1

Australian

1

Latvian

1

Scottish

1

Slovenian

1

Swiss

1

Egyptian

1

Korean

1

Mexican

1

New Zealander

1

South African

1

Taiwanese

1

 

CANADIAN-BORN CHEMISTRY NOBEL LAUREATES

1949

WILLIAM FRANCIS GIAUQUE

b. Niagara Falls, ON

Ph.D. 1922, California

went to United States

1983

HENRY TAUBE

b. Neudorf, SK

Ph.D. 1940, UC Berkeley

went to United States

1989

SIDNEY ALTMAN

b. Montreal, PQ

Ph.D. 1967, Colorado

went to United States

1992

RUDOLPH A. MARCUS

b. Montreal, PQ

Ph.D. 1946, McGill

went to United States

CHEMISTRY NOBEL LAUREATES: CANADIAN IMPORTS

1971

GERHARD HERZBERG

b. Hamburg, Germany

Ph.D. 1928, TU Darmstadt

1986

JOHN CHARLES POLANYI

b. Berlin, Germany

Ph.D. 1952, Manchester

1993

MICHAEL SMITH

b. Blackpool, England

Ph.D. 1956, Manchester

 

Age Range at Time Prize Awarded

(years)

Number of Chemistry Laureates

30 - 34

0

35 - 39

7

40 - 44

15

45 - 49

18

50 - 54

29

55 - 59

20

60 - 64

21

65 - 69

14

70 - 74

8

75 - 79

3

80 - 84

3

85 - 89

0